february 2015
Cover of IJWF, Volume 23, Issue 8, 2014

IAWF members have free online access to all research articles and back issues, a great member benefit. The IAWF membership page directs you to the Journal, where you can search for your paper, author and/or fire subject of interest. All papers that have been accepted, even those not yet published in hard copy, can be found on the site.

The current issue and eighth issue of the International Journal of Wildland Fire in 2014, Volume 23 (8) 2014, contains the following papers:

Challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modelling
Penelope Morgan, Robert E. Keane, Gregory K. Dillon, Theresa B. Jain, Andrew T. Hudak, Eva C. Karau, Pamela G. Sikkink, Zachary A. Holden and Eva K. Strand

We highlight challenges in effective fire and burn severity assessments in the field and using remote sensing and simulation models. We suggest that instead of collapsing interacting fire effects into a single severity index, the direct effects of fire be measured and integrated into severity index keys.

Flammability of litter sampled according to two different methods: comparison of results in laboratory experiments

Anne Ganteaume, Marielle Jappiot, Thomas Curt, Corinne Lampin and Laurent Borgniet

Flammability results obtained on litters sampled in different vegetation types according to two different methods were compared under laboratory conditions in order to assess the effects of the reconstruction of the litter samples and of the litter composition on flammability parameters.


Bulk and particle properties of pine needle fuel beds – influence on combustion
P. A. Santoni, P. Bartoli, A. Simeoni and J. L. Torero

A layer of pine needles with the same permeability characteristics at a given mass will have approximately the same rate of heat release when combusted. The surface-to-volume ratio of needles determines how quickly the fuels will ignite.


Effect of slope on spread of a linear flame front over a pine needle fuel bed: experiments and modelling
Naian Liu, Jinmo Wu, Haixiang Chen, Xiaodong Xie, Linhe Zhang, Bin Yao, Jiping Zhu and Yanlong Shan

The effect of slope on spread of a linear flame front over a pine needle fuel bed was studied. Natural convective cooling was revealed to have a remarkable effect on fuel pre-heating. A fire spread model was developed that agrees well with the experimental data under slope conditions.


Short-term effect of fuel treatments on fire behaviour in a mixed heathland: a comparative assessment in an outdoor wind tunnel
Eva Marino, Carmen Hernando, Javier Madrigal and Mercedes Guijarro

This study compares the short-term effect of different fuel treatments applied in a mixed heathland in north-western Spain on fire behaviour, by assessing the resulting vegetation in experimental burns in an outdoor wind tunnel. All fuel treatments effectively modified fire behaviour, but no significant difference between treatments was observed.


Modelling and mapping dynamic variability in large fire probability in the lower Sonoran Desert of south-western Arizona
Miranda E. Gray, Brett G. Dickson and Luke J. Zachmann

In the lower Sonoran Desert of south-western Arizona, climate change and non-native plant invasions may increase the frequency and size of uncommon wildfires. Our results contribute to an improved understanding of fuel and other landscape variables that increase large fire probability in this system, particularly maximum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, road density and elevation.


Santa Ana winds and predictors of wildfire progression in southern California
Michael Billmire, Nancy H. F. French, Tatiana Loboda, R. Chris Owen and Marlene Tyner

Wildfires occurring on Santa Ana event days are shown to be 3.5–4.5 times larger than on non-Santa Ana days. Relative humidity, wind speed, length of previous-day fire perimeter and day-of-fire-event indicators most strongly predict daily burned area of wildfires in southern California.


Improvement of fire danger modelling with geographically weighted logistic model
Haijun Zhang, Pengcheng Qi and Guangmeng Guo

We developed 10 global models and 40 local models for daily fire danger modelling. Cross-validation was performed to evaluate the performance of the various developed models. Compared to global logistic models, both stronger predictive performance and better inferential performance were validated by geographically weighted logistic models.


Behaviour of fire weather indices in the 2009–10 New Zealand wildland fire season
Colin C. Simpson, H. Grant Pearce, Andrew P. Sturman and Peyman Zawar-Reza

The Weather Research and Forecasting numerical weather prediction model was used to simulate the fire weather conditions during the 2009–10 New Zealand wildland fire season. This study discusses the behaviour of several fire weather indices, including the Haines Index and Continuous Haines Index, for this period.


The role of defensible space for residential structure protection during wildfires
Alexandra D. Syphard, Teresa J. Brennan and Jon E. Keeley

Defensible space provides significant home protection during wildfire, but more than 30 m (100 ft) provides no significant additional benefit, even on steep slopes. Vegetation reduction is most effective immediately adjacent to structures. The best long-term approach to structure protection will include land use planning in addition to defensible space.


Predictors of south-eastern Australian householders’ strengths of intentions to self-evacuate if a wildfire threatens: two theoretical models
Jim McLennan, Sean Cowlishaw, Douglas Paton, Ruth Beatson and Glenn Elliott

Fire agencies prefer householders to evacuate to a safer location if threatened by a wildfire. Some householders leave late and are exposed to danger. This research used two theoretical models to identify factors likely to be associated with high levels of strength of intention to evacuate.